Ns2 pdf contains the information of what are all the wireless network communications are present and Ns2 PDF how it will works and also what are the research topics are involve in that particular concepts etc.

The wireless communications are,

  • Wi-Fi
  • WiMax
  • Bluetooth
  • ZigBee
  • Terrestrial network communication etc.

Each of which can be explain details as follows,

  • A wireless network usesradio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and also radios do. In fact, communication across a wireless network is a also lot like two-way radio communication.
  • Wireless technology has widely spread lately and you can get connected almost anywhere; at home, at work, in libraries, schools, airports, hotels and even in some restaurants.
  • Wireless-networking is known as Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) or 802.11 networking as it covers the IEEE 802.11 technologies. The major advantage of Wi-Fi is that it is compatible with almost every operating system, game device and advanced printer.

Research areas of Wi-Fi are:

  • For providing security in wireless local area network
  • To provide enhanced data privacy
  • Design robust key management technique
  • For data origin authentication
  • Give data integrity protection
  • Achieve interoperable security enhancements etc.


  • WiMaxuses fixed and mobile stations to provide users with access to high-speed voice, data, and Internet connectivity.
  • Wi-Max technology has not been widely accepted by the technologycommunity, but its popularity continues to grow as businesses and consumers seek out better ways to constantly stay

Characteristics of Wi-max technology:

  • Based on wireless MAN technology
  • It’s a scalable wireless platform for the delivery of IP centric services over a wide area.
  • Acronym for a worldwide interoperability for microwave access.
  • Two types of usage models are involved in IEEE 802.16:
  • A fixed usage model
  • Portable usage model.

Research areas involve in Wi-max technologies:

  • For achieving QoS in wimax
  • Design combination of wireless and mesh networks
  • Define wimax with priority based scheduling technologies
  • Also Define access control to prevent collision etc.


  • Bluetooth is define as being a short-range radio technology (or wireless technology) aimed at simplifying communications among Internet devices and between devices and the Internet.
  • It also aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers.
Key features of Bluetooth technology is:
  • Available at cheaper rates
  • Less complication
  • Robustness
  • Less power consumption etc.


  • ZigBee is an open global standard for wireless technology design to use low-power digital radio signals for personal area networks.
  • In ZigBee operates on the IEEE 802.15.4 specification and is used to create networks that require a low data transfer rate, energy efficiency and secure networking.
Features of ZigBee technology:
  • Ti has low latency
  • Use up to 65,000 nodes per network
  • Support for multiple network topologies like point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and also mesh networks
  • It’s a collision avoidance, retries and also acknowledgment
  • It supports low duty cycles which also provides long battery life
  • Use 128 bit AES encryption also for secure data connections
  • Uses direct sequence spread spectrum etc
Terrestrial network communication:

Terrestrial networks are also use for high speed satellite network communications.

Research scope of terrestrial networks:
  • To design power conservation system
  • For seismic monitoring
  • To support for swarms underwater robots
  • For infrastructure monitoring purpose
  • Security monitoring etc.

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